When the blood clot forms in one or more of the deep veins in the body, usually in the legs, deep vein thrombosis (DVT) occurs. This may lead to pain or swelling and may occur without any symptoms. This condition is always accompanied by phlebitis, inflammation of the veins, resulting to coagulation disorders or may also point to yet undiscovered malignant disease.
For thrombosis to occur there should be damage of the inner layer of the vessel wall, catheter, blood stasis after surgery, oral contraceptives, prolonged sitting with legs down while travelling. This poses a risk to healthy people, too.
A person can develop acute disease in just couple of hours, or in 1-2 days, while its course is limited, taking 1-2 weeks, and then the process calms, while the pain is reduced. If there is superficial thrombosis, the affected vein is felt under the fingers being like a hard, thickened, ribbon-like formation which is a reflection of the inflammatory response, following its pain, tenderness, erythema, and warmth. While deep venous thrombosis van be asymptomatic and be revealed by different degrees of sensitivity, pain erythema, swelling, heat, changes in skin color, or prominent superficial veins. The person fells the pain upon standing and walking. When the person bends ankles with an outstretched knee or upon getting up with outstretched foot, maximum pain is felt. This is named Homan’s sign which should be distinguished from ordinary muscle pain.
This health issue is diagnosed on the basis of clinical symptoms and physical examination. We can usually distinguish between acute arterial and deep venous obstruction, as acute thrombosis is more than 50% of the cases is not able to be diagnosed only on the basis of clinical symptoms, or through Homan’s sign but it is rather confirmed by non-invasive tests, or venography. This condition may lead to death because of pulmonary embolism if not diagnosed.
This is a benign disease and can cause pulmonary embolism, leading to death or chronic venous insufficiency. Moreover, surface thrombosis can cause pulmonary embolus making but they will not be fatal.
This issue does not require any treatment other than relief symptoms in surface thrombosis. Patients can put warm compresses over the affected area and take NSAIDs, painkillers to calm the inflammation. It is not necessary to take any antibiotics, nor will hospitalization be needed. However, if the patient has DVT, then he/she must be hospitalized as it is important to prevent pulmonary embolism and chronic venous insufficiency. The activity of the heparin and the patient lies with the upper leg and wraps possible if no arterial insufficiency. Antibiotics are prescribed only if the infection is present. After heparin, proceed to oral warfarin therapy, the prescription is dependent on the length of each patient, typically from 2 to 6 months. When the edema is reduced, the patient should wear elastic stockings while walking, to control the edema that can occur during walking.